Libmonster ID: CN-1274
Author(s) of the publication: B. N. GORBACHEV

MILITARY PARADES IN CHINA AND THEIR ROLE IN SHAPING THE COUNTRY'S IMAGE

B. N. GORBACHEV

Doctor of Historical Sciences

Full member of the Academy of Military Sciences

Keywords: PRC, army, PLA armament, Beijing, Tiananmen, military parade

Military parades are a long-standing tradition in many countries. And China is no exception. In a country where the observance of rituals, the performance of prescribed ceremonial was the most important virtue, an indicator of subordination and obedience, it could not be otherwise.

The new China, which was formed in 1949, could not do without military parades designed to demonstrate the military strength that it was able to achieve.-

page 58

First, to the not yet completely defeated internal enemy - the Changkaish army, which continued to hold a significant part of mainland China and coastal islands under its control, and, secondly, to its opponents abroad.

The Preparatory Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference of China in July 1949 decided to hold a large military parade with the participation of 16,400 soldiers and commanders of the People's Liberation Army (PLA)during the celebrations on the occasion of the establishment of the People's Republic of China1. The country has established a Military Parade Preparation Committee headed by Zhou Enlai2.

For the CCP troops, who had long fought the Japanese and Kuomintang, parades were unusual. The troops of the Chinese Communists were a semi-partisan army, which did not have a single "Drill Charter".

Yang Chengwu3 asked for help from the military commander Liu Bocheng4, who, under the "pseudonym" Boris Ivanovich Afanasyev, studied at the infantry School and the M. V. Frunze Military Academy in Moscow in 1927-19305 and had an idea of how such events were conducted. He described in detail how the parades were held in the Soviet capital, and concluded:: "The parade is nothing more than a ceremonial event with a special content, it is only one form. Complete the form well and the goal is achieved. " 6

Liu Bocheng had a Soviet pamphlet on parade preparation that he had studied at the academy, as well as a manual on infantry drill in the Kuomintang army, published in 1935. Based on these materials, a scenario for the parade was drawn up, which provided for the selection of troops and personnel, the formation of parade crews, the order of their passage, and the musical accompaniment of the parade...

In August, military units were selected and assembled in the vicinity of Beijing to prepare for the parade. Classes were held for 15-16 hours a day 7. The personnel changed their shoes every few days of heavy walking. But the participants of the parade stubbornly endured difficulties.

THE FIRST PARADE IN CHINA

The solemn ceremony began at 15 o'clock on October 1, 1949.This unusually late time for the parade was not chosen by chance. There was a real threat of an air raid by Chiang Kai-shek, who was trying his best to disrupt the celebrations in Beijing. The start time of the parade was kept secret. It was announced on Beijing radio only five hours before the festivities started on 8.

By pressing an electric button, Mao Zedong raised a new 5-star national flag. A salute of 28 volleys was fired from 54 captured Japanese mountain cannons (the number 28 symbolized the number of years of struggle of the CCP since its creation in 1921, 54 - the number of nationalities in China). Mao Zedong then read out the Declaration of the Central People's Government on the Establishment of the People's Republic of China. And a military parade began, which was hosted by PLA commander-in-chief Zhu De. He entered the square in an open car and, after receiving the report of the commander of the North China Military Region, Nie Rongzhen, who commanded the parade, drove around the troops lined up in Tiananmen Square 9.

The parade column was opened by sailors with rifles slung over their shoulders, represented by cadets of the naval School and sailors of the Eastern Fleet. They carried the first PLA banner presented to the public-a red banner with a star and two characters "Ba yi" (the numbers 8 and 1, which meant the 8th month of the year and the 1st day, i.e. August 1-the date of the beginning of the Nanchang uprising in 1927, which was considered the day of the formation of the PLA).

Various PLA units passed successively along the stands - a total of 40 parade crews 10. Participants of the parade were equipped with a variety of captured military equipment and vehicles, including-

page 59

nome, Japanese and American models (119 artillery pieces, 152 armored vehicles and tanks, 222 vehicles, 2344 riding and sled horses were used). The musical part was provided by a combined military orchestra consisting of 200 people.

There was also an air parade in the sky of Beijing. It involved 17 aircraft out of the available 29. The air column was headed by a fighter flight. They were followed by bombers. Four planes had ammunition on board, in case of a possible enemy attack from the air. According to Yang Chengwu, this was a great confidence to the pilots, since usually the parade participants do not have ammunition 11.

To create an impression of the impressive power of the air fleet, such a maneuver was invented. First, 9 American-made P-51 Mustang fighters flew in three links. Behind them is a flight of 2 British-made Mosquito light bombers. The fifth flight consisted of 3 American transport aircraft Curtiss-Wright C-46, etc. While these planes were flying, the first group of fighters managed to turn around and fly over Tiananmen Square again. Thus, the impression was created that 26 aircraft participated in the air parade. It was important to show the public and the world that the New China has combat aircraft and is ready to defend its conquests.

The parade, which was watched by over 300 thousand people, lasted two and a half hours and caused a great public outcry, including abroad.

ACCORDING TO SOVIET PATTERNS

The second parade on the occasion of the founding of the People's Republic of China was held on October 1, 1950.

For the first time, Soviet military advisers participated in its preparation. For the Chinese, this case was still difficult, because drill training in the army was previously given little attention. In the same year, engineering troops, aviation, armored and artillery units were created in the country. The army, mostly consisting of infantry, gradually became combined-arms. This was also reflected in the parade. It was decorated with the PLA cavalry: 1,900 horsemen on white horses, drawn up in a column of six, pranced through Tiananmen Square 12.

The third parade, held in 1951, was prepared ahead of time. Two temporary headquarters were set up to train him. One was responsible for the ground forces, the other for the air parade. The Government of the People's Republic of China and the CPC Central Committee set the following tasks for the troops: to demonstrate the growing power of the PLA and show its combat training, coherence in movement, and exemplary external condition.13

A month and a half was allotted for the preparation of the parade. Despite intensive training, the participants of the parade could not maintain the alignment in rows of 20 people. Nevertheless, the troops at the parade showed good drill training, marched with a clear step, maintaining a good alignment in the ranks. The marching step of the battalion of sailors and submachine gunners 14 was especially highly noted.

The first parade squad consisted of a" box " of 400 people (20x20), made up of senior officers who were trained at the Nanjing Military Academy. In addition, the parade was attended for the first time by a large formation of the people's militia-the 20th battalion, armed with old-style rifles. To the sound of a rapid march, squadrons of the cavalry division galloped by on small Mongolian horses. A column of motorized infantry with 48 vehicles, 20 people each, passed by. 150 guns of anti-tank, cannon and howitzer artillery passed along the grandstand on cars and tractors. The armored column (over 60 combat vehicles), consisting of heavy and medium tanks, as well as self-propelled artillery units (self-propelled guns), made a great impression on the audience.

The air parade, which was attended only by Soviet equipment delivered to the PRC, was opened by a Tu-2 bomber, accompanied by two fighters. Three nines of bombers flew in a clear formation "at an angle forward". Behind them - four squadrons of Il-10 attack aircraft. Then at a higher altitude - three squadrons of La-11 and La-9 fighters, and MiG-15 jet aircraft. The 134-aircraft air parade was an impressive sight for those present.15 The military parade lasted an hour and a half.

FOURTH, "UPGRADED"

Preparations for the fourth parade in 1952 began a month earlier than the previous time. It was also attended by Soviet military advisers.

As in 1951, it was planned to withdraw 20 battalions. However, they had a smaller number: each had 12 ranks of 20 people, i.e. 240 people. The first battalions are armed with Soviet submachine guns, the second and third - with rifles. The general column was closed by 2 battalions of the People's militia. The parade crew of the militia included not only people of the titular Chinese nation of Han, but also representatives of national minorities. They were dressed in colorful colorful costumes and held weapons in their hands.

page 60

samples. The total number of tanks and self-propelled guns was increased from 60 to 100 units, and the number of aircraft - to 156,16. For the first time, public security troops took part in the parade. A column of motorized infantry on 160 motorbikes also attracted the attention of the public17.

All participants of the parade were given new uniforms. At the request of Mao Zedong, the size of the military band increased from 750 to 1 thousand people. Musical instruments were purchased in Czechoslovakia. Three night rehearsals of the Tiananmen Square Parade were held.

As in the previous year, the passage of tanks was hindered by the Eastern Gate. On the approaches to the gates, the driver-mechanics had to change from a column of four to a column of three, and after passing through the gates, they had to take the same order again. At the same time, the alignment was lost. Just before the parade, the government decided to demolish the Eastern Gate at an evening meeting. The old Chinese objected, insisting on preserving the historic centuries-old monument. But in the end, the military's point of view won out. A group of workers dismantled the gate at night.

The parade was hosted by the PLA commander-in-Chief Zhu De, who received a new car from the USSR. The first in the column of military units were paratroopers with parachutes and machine guns on their chests. Then there are public security units armed with Mauser guns. Behind them came the infantry battalions. The cavalry was followed by power-driven artillery. This was followed by divisions of anti-aircraft, anti-tank, more powerful cannon, howitzer and rocket artillery. Tank units were represented by T-34 and IS-2 tanks, as well as self-propelled guns-72 and self-propelled guns-12218.

The parade showed that Chinese military leaders have learned the science of preparing and conducting such events, taking as a basis the experience of the "big brother". Similar parades were held in the 1950s, although each one had something new.

So, at the fifth parade in 1953, a column of soldiers and commanders from among the Chinese people's volunteers who fought in Korea marched in a solemn march. By this time, the Korean War was over, although the volunteers remained in the DPRK until 1958.

In 1954, at the sixth parade, which was hosted by the first-ever Chinese Defense Minister Peng Dehuai, the "box" of paratroopers reappeared. This was a demonstration of a new type of military, although China's real ability to transfer large landings was long limited due to the small number of military transport aircraft in the PLA. For the last time, cavalry galloped through the parade. It became clear that in the conditions of mechanization and modernization of the armed forces of the People's Republic of China, it was losing ground to more modern branches of the armed forces.

At the seventh parade in 1955, the appearance of military personnel was radically different. As a result of the PLA reform, soldiers and commanders moved to the category of soldiers and officers. Military ranks were introduced, as well as a new form of clothing (formal, casual, and field) with shoulder straps, buttonholes, and stripes. Ten military leaders became marshals of the PRC, twenty-army generals. The uniform of the generalissimo and Mao Zedong was sewn. But at the last moment, he refused such a rank and continued to walk in civilian clothes 19.

...October is the best time of year in Beijing. The weather is usually warm and dry. However, October 1, 1956 was an exception: the parade was held in heavy rain. After a long break, the Chinese capital hosted the Eighth Congress of the CPC (the previous one was held in 1945). The congress documents reflected the strong influence of the Soviet experience on many aspects of China's socio-political and economic life.

The CPC charter stated that the party's activities are guided by Marxism-Leninism20, and Mao Zedong's ideas were removed from this context. The congress was attended by representatives of Communist and workers ' parties from more than 50 countries. The CPSU delegation was headed by A. I. Mikoyan21. All the guests of the congress were on the podium of the Tianan Gate-

page 61

Men and watched the military parade.

Some units that participated in the parade passed through the square in Jiefang (Liberation) vehicles. These were the first Chinese-made cars produced at the enterprise created with the help of Soviet specialists in Changchun. For the first time, 4 Chinese-made J-5 jet fighters modeled after the MiG-17F aircraft took part in the air parade. On this occasion, Mao Zedong happily said to foreign guests:: "These are planes that we made ourselves." 22

The Soviet Union's assistance in developing heavy and defense industries was considerable. The USSR assisted in the construction of many objects of aviation, shipbuilding, automobile and other industries, including 100 enterprises of the military industry.23

Samples of new equipment were gradually demonstrated at parades. So, on October 1, 1957, Il-28 bombers delivered from the USSR participated in the parade for the first time. China established their production independently in the 1960s under the name H-5.

In the tenth parade on October 1, 1958, 29 ground crews passed and 6 air groups consisting of 93 aircraft flew. It was attended by students of military academies and cadets of military schools of infantry, artillery, tank and engineering troops, as well as the PLA Air Force and Navy. The total number of military personnel was 7856 people.

IN HONOR OF THE FIRST DECADE OF THE PRC

On October 1, 1959, the 11th parade was held in the Chinese capital on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. It is clear that it was distinguished by special solemnity. Many foreign guests came to Beijing, including a delegation of the USSR headed by N. S. Khrushchev. The audience was placed on 16 viewing stands. On the center stage was Chinese President Mao Zedong, with Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh on his right and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev on his left.

The event was attended by the largest number of troops in the history of parades, as well as a 700-thousandth demonstration of civilians. The troops were equipped with the latest Soviet weapons and military equipment manufactured at Chinese enterprises: automatic carbines, large-caliber guns, tanks and high-speed jet fighters. 24 The parade was supposed to show the result of the reforms carried out in the PLA, and, of course, reflect the scale of the "big leap"course.

At 10 a.m., Beijing Mayor Peng Zhen opened the festivities. Under the sounds of the national anthem of the People's Republic of China and volleys of guns, the parade began, consisting of 24 columns. They included 15 foot, 16 mechanized crews and 6 air groups. Ahead of them were representatives of the PLA Navy. Then the selected mechanized infantry and airborne troops moved out. The infantrymen were wearing hard hats and carrying submachine guns and carbines. The first infantry company represented units of the 1st Division of the 1st Corps of the Chinese Red Army, which fought heroically in the Jinggangshan Mountains back in the 1920s and 1930s. There were gunners who demonstrated 144 guns of different calibers, including the SAU-100 and SAU-152. Most of the artillery was already domestically produced 25. 155 PLA Air Force bombers and fighter jets flew in the sky over Tiananmen Square 26.

The personnel of the parade participants demonstrated high combat training. The soldiers were followed by columns of the People's militia, which were supposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the "all the people are soldiers" course put forward by Mao Zedong on September 29, 1958.27

In a short time, 5,175 divisions and 44,205 regiments of the people's militia were formed in the country, the total number of which was 220 million people, i.e. up to 35% of the total population. But in fact, it was a "paper tiger", since only about 30 million militia members, including 20 million, had military training. demobilized soldiers. Some units

page 62

in general, they existed only on paper 28.

It should be noted that the policy of the "three red banners" ("new general line", "big leap" and "people's communes"), proclaimed by Mao in 1958, turned out to be a big adventure, which caused heavy damage to the national economy of the PRC, including the defense industry and military construction. In 1960, due to natural disasters and a vicious agricultural policy, famine broke out in the country.

In such a difficult socio-political situation, holding military parades has become impossible and inappropriate. In September 1960, the CPC Central Committee decided to make the grandiose demonstrations that had been held annually for 10 years much easier, and to cancel military parades altogether. In China, a period of "economic regularization" followed. It was followed by a decade of devastating "cultural revolution" (1966-1976). The country was not up to military parades...

AFTER A LONG PAUSE

Only a quarter of a century later, in 1984, the next military parade in Tiananmen, the 12th in a row, took place. It was held under the slogan of the 35th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. Since 1979, the country has entered a period of serious reform and by 1984 already had some positive results. This parade was the largest and largest in the history of the People's Republic of China. It took 8 months to prepare it29.

The parade in an open car was hosted by Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Central Military Council of the People's Republic of China, the "architect of reforms". He gave a major speech in which he called on the PLA personnel "... to maintain vigilance without fail, to continuously improve their military and political training, and to persevere in mastering the knowledge and skills of modern warfare. " 30 In the parade, along with the traditional units of the ground forces, Navy and Air Force, weapons of the so-called "Second Artillery", i.e. Strategic Missile Forces, were demonstrated for the first time.

For the first time, the troops of the People's Armed Police (reorganized units of the internal troops) participated - a new component of the armed forces, but not part of the PLA. The total number of participants in the parade exceeded 18 thousand people. 18 foot and 24 mechanized columns were formed. 117 aircraft participated in the air parade.

The troops demonstrated the latest weapons and military equipment, showed a high degree of mechanization of the army. At the same time, the samples of weapons were of domestic production, although mostly copies of Soviet equipment. The parade first showed the world Chinese strategic missiles 31.

In Beijing, it was decided to hold regular parades every 5 years. The next one was to be held in 1989 (on the 40th anniversary of the PRC). But in May and June of this year, the Chinese capital and a number of other cities saw widespread anti-government demonstrations by young people, mainly students, for democratic changes in society, against corruption and the deterioration of the economic situation.

Unable to stop the mass unrest by peaceful measures, the Chinese authorities imposed martial law and used troops against the demonstrators. Blood was spilled, many people were killed and injured. Victims were not only among civilians, but also among military personnel. The massacre was called "the Tiananmen Square events of 1989". The suppression of the" counter-revolutionary rebellion " lasted for more than 7 months. 32

In this situation, military parades in China were once again forgotten for a long time. The next, 13th parade was held only 10 years later, when the half-century anniversary of the People's Republic of China was celebrated.

Over the years, the combat capability of the armed forces has also strengthened, which, despite Western sanctions that imposed an embargo on the export of military products to China after the "events on Tiananmen in 1989", managed to modernize weapons and equip the troops with new equipment. This, of course, was facilitated by China's military-technical cooperation, primarily with Russia33, as well as with some CIS countries, especially with Ukraine and Belarus, which developed since the early 1990s.

A NEW DEMONSTRATION OF POWER

The increased military power of China was demonstrated at the parade in Beijing on October 1, 1999. The parade was hosted by the Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China Jiang Zemin. He rode around the line of troops and made a speech. The parade showcased important changes that have taken place in the image of the Chinese army over half a century, especially in the last 20 years of reforms. 95% of the types of equipment and weapons were new models. Ground vehicles were represented by tanks, IFVs, APCs, self-propelled guns, MLRS, rocket launchers - a total of 409 units. Many weapons samples were shown to the public for the first time 34.

The next, 14th parade was held 10 years later-on October 1, 2009,35 The country celebrated the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. Due to the difficulties in the economic situation in the country due to the global financial crisis, the management of

page 63

China decided to hold the parade more modestly, spending about $ 600 million on this event, according to the China Daily newspaper. RMB ($44 million)36.

The ceremony started at 10 am. Under the sound of music and artillery salute from the monument to Fallen Heroes, at the pedestal of which there was a portrait of Sun Yat-sen, the honor guard carried the National flag of the country to the flagpole in front of the Tiananmen Square podium. Chinese President Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, received a report from the commander of the Beijing Military District, who commanded the parade, and made a 10-minute detour of the 44 parade teams lined up along Changanj Street at a distance of 2 km. He greeted the soldiers and thanked them for their service. To which they answered in unison: "We serve the people!"

NEW FORM OF CLOTHING, NEW EQUIPMENT

All the soldiers were wearing a new uniform that was introduced to the Chinese army in 2007 on the eve of the PLA's 80th anniversary. Over the years, the uniform has changed 12 times. The changes affected 644 items of uniforms in formal, casual and field uniforms, and 389 insignia were introduced.

Changing the army lasted 3 years and cost the treasury 6 billion rubles. RMB 37. Before that, the uniform was changed 20 years ago, in 1987, when the PLA again returned officer and general ranks. The growth of China's economic power made it possible to create the necessary material base to improve the supply of the army.

Since the parade was prepared for 7 months (from the beginning of March to the end of September) in hard daily training (in the last 3 months for 12 hours a day), the personnel demonstrated unprecedented coherence of actions and drill training.

About 5 thousand people were the first to march through the square in a parade. military personnel. They went in "boxes" of 14 rows of 25 people in each row. Two superiors (the commander and the political commissar) were walking ahead. The smallest parade crew was represented by the honor guard company (156 people). The most numerous was the "box" of female servicemen consisting of 378 people, the rest-352 38. Behind the foot columns moved vehicles: tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled guns, mobile missile systems and other combat vehicles.

Especially cute was the women's column, dressed in the colors of the three types of armed forces. Elegant hats with flattened brims on the sides, short skirts, black shoes and white socks looked elegant and did not contrast with the menacing expression on the faces of female soldiers who were ready to carry out any order. But their immaculate appearance and marching pace were surpassed, in my opinion,by the closing women's column of the people's militia.

The militia members were dressed in bright crimson suits and carried submachine guns of the 1985 model on their chests. White berets and white boots combined with miniskirts successfully emphasized the attractiveness of the"Chinese Amazons".

The parade columns on foot passed through the square for 12 minutes. Then, for 20 minutes, mechanized columns moved, demonstrating 16-18 samples of military equipment each. The first to pass were tanks in a column of four (the main heavy tank ZTZ-99 and the main battle tank ZTZ-96A). Cruise missiles of the Navy and coastal defense attracted the attention of the public. The representation of various mobile radar systems (RLS), communication systems, space satellite communications, and tropospheric communications has become noticeable. For the first time, the home front technique was demonstrated. These include field kitchens, ambulances, fuel tankers, water supply vehicles, etc.

After passing ground vehicles, planes and helicopters appeared in the sky. In total, more than 150 units of flight equipment flew in the sky over the stands, representing the main types of PLA aircraft. According to the deputy Commander of the PLA Air Force Zhao Zhongxing, 95% of the samples of aircraft were of new types and participated in the air parade for the first time.

The leadership of the country and a multi-million audience around the world were shown 52 new types of military equipment of domestic development. 90% of the weapons were shown to the general public for the first time. Among the new products of the Chinese Air Force were unmanned aerial vehicles, helicopters, satellite communication systems, radars, missiles, including ballistic missiles.

According to foreign experts, in the 10 years that have passed since the previous parade in honor of the 50th anniversary of the People's Republic of China, the development of weapons and military equipment of the PLA has advanced by one or two generations. At the same time, not all the samples demonstrated at the parade enter the regular armament of the troops en masse.

Despite the statements of the Chinese that the equipment demonstrated at the parade is mainly of domestic design, many facts pointed to the opposite. A significant part of the equipment shown is Chinese "clones" of weapons produced in Russia, France, the United States and a number of other countries. For example, when creating

page 64

The DF-31A mobile ICBM launchers were based on early samples of Soviet nuclear systems, and multi-axle chassis were developed in cooperation with the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant.

(The ending follows)

Jia Yingting, Ye Xiaotong, Lu Ye 1 Tiananmen. Bainian jiujiao (Tiananmen. One hundred years in the focus of events). Beijing, 2000, p. 84.

2 Zhou Enlai (1898 - 1976) - Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death.

3 Yang Chengwu (1914-2004) - military commander of the People's Republic of China, Colonel-General (1955). Proved himself a skilled commander during the war with Japan and with the Americans in the Korean war. 1983-1988-Deputy Chairman of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference of China.

4 Liu Bocheng (1892-1986) - a prominent military figure, Marshal of the People's Republic of China. He held senior positions in the PLA, CCP, and PRC.

Peng Junrong. 5 Hongchang jiii. Zhonggong zaoqi liusu dan'an jiemi (Memories of Red Square. Declassified archival documents about CCP members who studied in the early Soviet Union). Beijing, 2015. p. 399.

6. Gorbachev B. 6 Chetetyat ' paradov Podnebesnoy [The Fourteen Parades of the Middle Kingdom]. Nezavisimoe voennoe obozrenie [Independent Military Review]. 2015, N 33. P. 10.

7 Kai Guo da yuebing (Grand State Founding Parade) - http://baike.sogou.com/v5705648.htm

8 Jiemi: 1949 nian kaigo dadian nei ise bu wei ren zhi de xijie (Revealing secrets: Unknown Details about the great parade on the occasion of the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 - http://news.ifeng.eom/a/20141002/42133594_0.shtml

9 Nie Rongzhen was the parade commander from 1949 to 1952. In 1955, he was promoted to the rank of "Marshal of the People's Republic of China". He died in 1992 at the age of 93.

10 Zhongguo dayuebing (Great Military Parades of China). A collection of videos about 13 parades on Tiananmen. Beijing, 1999. S. I.

Jia Yingting, Ye Xiaotong, Lu E. 11 Edict. op. p. 89.

12 Zhongguo dayuebing ... p. 18.

Semenov G. G. 13 Three years in Beijing (Notes of a military adviser). Moscow, 1978, p. 176.

14 Ibid., p. 184.

15 Ibid., p. 186.

16 Ibid., p. 188.

17 Zhongguo dayuebing ... p. 21; Zhongguo lishishan, yu ji ci zhongda yuebing yishi? (How many times in China's history have large parades been held?) - http://zhidao.baidu.com/link?url=V3XjRzifgSVzhRmUVntzCHmKdzyG-rvgOMFIhXh2HxB MyW_eTn6QxnA3Qdi-iR42xzGTOBWtHP01DnIOu3BCq

18 By the end of 1955, the PLA had received more than 800,000 small arms, more than 11,000 guns, and more than 3,000 weapons from the USSR. armored vehicles, about 5 thousand aircraft, about 200 ships, over 1,400 radar and searchlight installations, 12 thousand people. units of radio and wired communications, 500 units of large engineering equipment, more than 100 special chemical protection vehicles. See: Gorbachev B. N. The role of the armed forces in the socio-political life of the People's Republic of China (1949-1979). Dis.... Doctor of Historical Sciences M., 1993.p. 168.

Galenovich Yu. M. 19 Mao Zedong, Moscow, 2006, pp. 211-212 (Galenovich Yu. M. 2006. Mao Tsetung vblizi. M.) (in Russian)

20 Materials of the VIII National Congress of the Communist Pariah of China (September 15-17, 1956). Moscow, Gospolitizdat, 1956. p. 503.

21 Ibid., p. 175.

22 Dandai zhongguo junduide junshi gongzuo (Military work of the modern Chinese Army). Beijing, 1989, part 2, p. 162.

23 MTC of Russia. Historical essay. Moscow, Military Parade. 2010. p. 162.

24 By the end of the 1950s, the Chinese defense industry was able to produce copies of over 100 Soviet weapons. At the same time, China began to modernize existing equipment and develop its own types of weapons. In 1964, the share of domestic production increased to 55%. (See: Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun de qishi nian (70 years of the People's Liberation Army of China). Beijing, 1997. p. 462; Dandai zhongguo junduide junshi gongzo (Military work of the modern Chinese Army). Beijing, 1989, part 2, p. 114).

Barabanov M. S., Kashin V. B., Makienko K. V. 25 Oboronnaya promyshlennost ' i torgovle oboruzhenii PRC [Defense Industry and Arms Trade in the PRC], Moscow, Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, 2013, p. 115.

Jia Yingting, Ye Xiaotong, Lu E. 26 Edict op. p. 162-163.

Wang Wenju, Wu Yongpei. 27 Minbing juzhi jianshe zhinan (Guide to Creating Militia Organizations). Beijing, 2011, p. 9.

The Armed Forces of China: the Role in the Socio-political life of the People's Republic of China in 1949-1979. IDV RAS, 1999, No. 3, p. 47.

Jia Yingting, Ye Xiaotong, Lu E. 29 Edict. op. p. 325.

30 Zhongguo renmin jiefangjun. Liushi Nian dashiji (1927-1987) (People's Liberation Army of China. Chronicle of the most important events in 60 years). Beijing, 1988, p. 755.

Gorbachev B. 31 Fourteen parades of the Middle Kingdom ... P. 11.

Gorbachev B. 32 Chinese drama. PLA and the defeat of the insurgency in central Beijing // Nezavisimaya gazeta. 04.10.1994. p. 5.

33 On 24 November 1992, the Russian and Chinese Governments signed an agreement on military-technical cooperation. In the period from 1993 to 2008, the volume of Russian arms supplies to the PRC amounted to more than $25 billion (See: Gorbachev B. N. Russian-Chinese relations in the military field / / 60 years of the PRC. Sixtieth anniversary of diplomatic relations of the USSR/Russia and China (1949-2009) // Abstracts of the XVIII International Scientific Conference " China, Chinese Civilization and the World. History, modernity, prospects" (Moscow. October 21-23, 2009). Moscow, IDV RAS, 2009, p. 259.

Barabanov M. S., Kashin V. B., Makienko K. V. 34 Edict. soch. p. 118, 173.

35 Tiananmen Square successfully hosted a military parade on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the proclamation of the People's Republic of China - http://russian.people.com.cn/31521/6774550.html

36 http://sinocom.ru/showthread.php7t-253

Chun Tian. 37 A new form of the PLA / / China. 2007. N 8. pp. 28-31.

Ponyatov V. 38 60 years of the People's Republic of China: from trophy rifles to nuclear Superpowers: or some results of the military parade in honor of the 60th anniversary of the formation of the People's Republic of China / / Arsenal. Military-industrial review. 2009. N 3.

39th anniversary of the People's Republic of China was celebrated with a grandiose military parade in Beijing- http://www.newsru.com/world/01oct2009/parade.html


© elibrary.org.cn

Permanent link to this publication:

https://elibrary.org.cn/m/articles/view/SHIELD-AND-SWORD-OF-THE-CELESTIAL-EMPIRE

Similar publications: LPeople's Republic of China LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Wan YongContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: https://elibrary.org.cn/Yong

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

B. N. GORBACHEV, SHIELD AND SWORD OF THE CELESTIAL EMPIRE // Beijing: China (ELIBRARY.ORG.CN). Updated: 24.02.2024. URL: https://elibrary.org.cn/m/articles/view/SHIELD-AND-SWORD-OF-THE-CELESTIAL-EMPIRE (date of access: 19.07.2024).

Found source (search robot):


Publication author(s) - B. N. GORBACHEV:

B. N. GORBACHEV → other publications, search: Libmonster ChinaLibmonster WorldGoogleYandex

Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Publisher
Wan Yong
Tianjin, China
30 views rating
24.02.2024 (146 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes
Related Articles
China. THE DRAGON IS JUST WAKING UP
Catalog: Economics 
62 days ago · From Wan Yong
China. SIX PEOPLE IN A ROOM
Catalog: Sociology 
62 days ago · From Wan Yong
CHINESE WAY OF CONSTRUCTION
Catalog: Economics 
62 days ago · From Wan Yong
DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA'S OIL AND GAS SECTOR
Catalog: Energetics 
64 days ago · From Wan Yong
RUSSIA-CHINA: A BRIDGE TO THE FUTURE
Catalog: Other 
64 days ago · From Wan Yong
RUSSIA-CHINA: A BRIDGE TO THE FUTURE
Catalog: Other 
64 days ago · From Wan Yong
China. The fate of the Russian Diaspora
Catalog: Sociology 
64 days ago · From Wan Yong
GLOBALIZATION IS KNOCKING ON THE DOOR
Catalog: Philosophy 
72 days ago · From Wan Yong
CHINA MODERNIZATION AND THE TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS
Catalog: Philosophy 
72 days ago · From Wan Yong
"FALUN GONG", OR A HOLY PLACE IS NEVER EMPTY
Catalog: History 
72 days ago · From Wan Yong

New publications:

Popular with readers:

News from other countries:

ELIBRARY.ORG.CN - China Digital Library

Create your author's collection of articles, books, author's works, biographies, photographic documents, files. Save forever your author's legacy in digital form. Click here to register as an author.
Library Partners

SHIELD AND SWORD OF THE CELESTIAL EMPIRE
 

Editorial Contacts
Chat for Authors: CN LIVE: We are in social networks:

About · News · For Advertisers

China Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2023-2024, ELIBRARY.ORG.CN is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Preserving the Chinese heritage


LIBMONSTER NETWORK ONE WORLD - ONE LIBRARY

US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

Download app for Android