Libmonster ID: CN-1263
Author(s) of the publication: P. Y. ZITKILOV


Doctor of Historical Sciences

Don State Agrarian University

Keywords: China, Chinese model of social protection, social care, social insurance, traditional family factor of social support of the population

The Chinese model of social protection is characterized by the active participation of the state in the field of social support and ensuring social harmony. Modern insurance mechanisms are also actively developing. Taking into account the centuries-old traditions, an important role in the social protection system is assigned to the family factor. The social sphere is increasingly becoming an object of activity of public organizations and private entrepreneurship.

Economic reforms of the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. They contributed to the accelerated social development of the People's Republic of China, creating conditions for the effective functioning of the social assistance system for those in need. The multiple growth of China's economic potential over the past decades has led to a significant increase in household incomes. The convergent model of connecting socialism with the market used in the country provides the country with serious advantages.

The state in China not only rationally regulates the sphere of social support for the population, but also directly participates in solving many social problems. The model of social protection of the population that functions in the PRC is holistic and multi-level. It is characterized by the following main features::

1. Active participation of the state in the sphere of social support of the population (social assistance to the poor and their families, disabled people, street children, orphans; promotion of the welfare of the people through compensation of expenses for education, housing, etc.; social care for military personnel, their families and persons who enjoy special respect of society);

2. Development of social protection insurance mechanisms;

3. Maintaining the importance of the traditional family factor in the practice of social support of the population;

4. Involvement of public and charitable organizations and private entrepreneurship in the sphere of social protection.


The transformation of the past 30 years has made China a world leader in gross domestic product1. According to Goldman & Sachs bank experts, China will catch up with the US in terms of GDP before the end of 2020, and by 2050, China will be able to reach the US in terms of GDP. China's GDP may reach $70 trillion, while the United States will have only $38 trillion.2

Based on this economic foundation, the Government of the country is making great efforts to overcome mass poverty. In pre-reform China, one in four people was in absolute poverty, with an income of less than $5 a month. In 2012, the poverty threshold was officially raised to $1 a day. The number of people below this threshold has fallen from 250 million to 26 million. 3

Poor families receive State assistance to meet the minimum necessities of life. Its size is linked to the subsistence level. It is set differentially for individual cities and adjusted over time. Those families whose average monthly income per member did not reach the set amount receive a State poverty allowance.

Poverty remains high in the central and western regions of China, including the highlands. The role of the State is to use various ways to reduce the gap between the richer (coastal provinces of the East and South) and poorer areas of the country. For this purpose, different tariffs are set for utilities, different prices for housing, food, and goods.

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The policy of "harmonizing" the country's territories includes such measures as helping rich provinces to the poor, patronizing local garrisons of the People's Liberation Army over the rural poor, helping poor territories by labor collectives and foreign firms operating in China, etc. For example, Beijing helps the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Shanghai helps the southwestern Yunnan Province; and the seaside cities of Dalian, Qingdao, and Shenzhen help the border province of Guizhou.

Comprehensive poverty reduction plans were implemented in 126,000 poor villages in China. They provided for the solution of infrastructure issues, including the provision of drinking water, electricity, modern roads, schools, and medical centers. Thanks to the patronage of the army, 1,600 rural schools were built, 130 county hospitals, 1,283 volost polyclinics were provided, etc. 4

State aid to the poor is not limited in China to the payment of benefits. The poor are almost exempt from income tax. Personal income tax is taken on a progressive scale-from 3% (if the monthly income is up to 1500 yuan) to 45% (if the monthly income is 80001 yuan or higher) 5.


The country has developed a system of benefits for granting loans for the development of economic activities with the participation of older people: they take into account their desire to work to the best of their abilities and capabilities. After all, the ancient Chinese commandment says: "If you don't do anything, then why live?"

About 85 million people with disabilities live in China6. There is a system of assistance for disabled people, which includes the organization of their employment, special educational institutions, etc. Hundreds of educational institutions are designed for disabled children. In ordinary schools, they create special classes for them.

In recent years, hundreds of rehabilitation centers have been opened for disabled people. Here they are provided with comprehensive care, providing medical procedures, the opportunity to restore mobility, train speech, and intelligence. According to the Federation of Disabled People of the People's Republic of China, employees of such centers have trained 190 thousand blind people to walk7. Over the past few years, the authorities have been able to arrange and pay for the treatment of more than 12 million patients. disabled people.

In China, the right to employment of disabled people is guaranteed. In recent decades, employment among disabled people has increased from 50% to 80% .8 According to this indicator, China surpassed many other countries: in Russia at the very beginning of the XXI century, only 1 out of 10 disabled people was employed, in the USA - every 3rd, in the UK-every 4th disabled person9. According to the Law of the People's Republic of China on the protection of persons with disabilities, institutions, public organizations, enterprises, economic entities, city and town economic organizations are required to employ a certain (calculated as a percentage) number of disabled people. The percentage is determined by the provincial government based on local conditions.

State rehabilitation services are being created for the elderly. Here they provide information about disease prevention, provide advice and medical care. There are also nursing homes in China - public, private, and corporate-collective. Collective communities - village, district, district, and street committees-attract funds from local authorities and charitable donations to organize services for providing medical and psychological assistance to the elderly. There are also leisure centers in the country where senior citizens can practice choral singing, dancing, calligraphy, photography, physical exercises, etc.

There are 655,000 orphaned children in China, 10 and about 300,000 street children 11. Orphaned children receive a monthly subsistence allowance from the State. Its rate is differentiated: a higher size is set in major cities, including Beijing. Almost every year, the amount of the allowance increases, taking into account the growth of incomes of the urban and rural population of the country. The source of funding for the subsistence allowance for this category of persons is the State budget and territorial budgets.

An extensive network of State-run centers has been established to provide assistance to street children. In 2004 alone, 130 shelters were opened. 12 Since 2010, Beijing has hosted the country's largest social shelter for street children. The main contingent of such aid centers is children from rural areas -83%. Their predominance is explained by several reasons. First, for more than three decades of implementing the "one family - one child" policy, the village has ceased to be a place where many relatives live. Secondly, an increasing number of rural residents are rushing to the cities to earn money, leaving their child (s) often with elderly and more than modest parents. As a result of-

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tate's control over such children is weakening, prompting some of them to "go on a journey" for a better life.

Foster care is becoming a common form of placement for orphaned children in China. The state encourages this practice by increasing the norms of budget subsidies for the admission of orphaned children to families. Therefore, in recent years, more and more Chinese people have taken on the maintenance and foster care of children deprived of parental care13.


An important area of state participation in the field of social protection is ensuring social welfare by partially or fully covering the costs of education, housing, etc. For example, in the northern territories, public heating costs are borne by the state, and the rent here is symbolic. For farmers in many provinces of the country, electricity is free (provided that they fulfill state purchases of agricultural products).

In the cities of the northern province of Jilin, tariffs for many services for the population are significantly lower than in the south and east of the country. So, in the border town of Hunchun with Russia, a two-room apartment (60 m2) at the end of the first decade of the XXI century cost, in terms of US currency*, $16 thousand. For all utilities, people who lived in it paid 1950 yuan a year, or about 7 thousand rubles.14

The medical support system is also being improved in China. A full course of treatment in 10 days, in accordance with the diagnosis, cost about 1.5 thousand rubles for Russian money. Those who have health insurance are compensated for the bulk of their medical care fees. Often, the patient has to pay no more than 30% of the cost of medical services out of their own funds 15. If earlier in Chinese healthcare there was a less humane principle: pay - then be treated, now in many provinces of the country there is a different procedure: payment after services are provided.

The purpose of" social welfare", as noted by Professor of the Institute of Labor and Personnel of the People's University of China Hou Wenzho, is actually a kind of" social salary " - another additional income that contributes to improving the living standards of the employee and his family.16


The State also participates in such a specific manifestation of social protection as"social care". It is provided to military personnel and their dependents, a special group of citizens who enjoy the respect of society.

Military personnel are provided with a decent monetary allowance. It consists of the amount of salaries for military rank, position and allowances. The salary of soldiers (sailors) in 2012 was, in terms of US currency, $75. In the army, payments to non-commissioned officers (contract sergeants), depending on the position, category and length of service, range from $450 to $720. Salaries of junior officers (platoon and company commanders) - from $700 to $780, senior officers - from $810 to $1,380, senior officers (army and district commanders) - from $1,400 to $3,450 17.

In other branches of the Armed Forces of the People's Republic of China, the amount of monetary allowances has an increased coefficient. In addition, there are three types of allowances-for military specialty, service conditions and work intensity. They are regularly indexed.

Given the relatively low cost of food and everyday goods in the country, as well as the low level of income of the population (by the beginning of 2012, the average income in Chinese cities was $265 per month, and in rural areas - about $95), the salaries of officers allow creating relatively comfortable living conditions for their families. It should be noted that China's GDP in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) not only reached, but also exceeded the indicator of the American economy: in 2014, in China - $17.617 trillion, in the United States - $17.419 trillion 18.

Officers are provided with service apartments in military camps. They are provided with apartments for permanent residence through mortgage lending on preferential terms. For those laid off in the reserve who did not have the opportunity to use mortgage programs, a cash allowance is provided. It is formed by monthly transfer by the state of the established amount to the current account of the serviceman until the moment of his retirement 19. Military personnel and their family members have the right to use the services of military medical institutions, departmental sanatoriums, and rest homes free of charge.

Taking care of the social security of family members.-

* The exchange rate of the Chinese yuan to the dollar at the beginning of 2015 was: 10 yuan - $1.61 (author's note).

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It is also assigned to local executive authorities. They are obliged, first of all, to employ this category of citizens, provide the necessary medical care, and also facilitate the admission of children of officers and non-commissioned officers to educational institutions on preferential terms.

After being discharged to the reserve, regular military personnel in China are paid a pension in the amount of 80-85% of the salary of the monetary allowance for the last position held.20 They are preferred when applying for a job. Under the State Council of the People's Republic of China, there is a special commission for the employment of dismissed military personnel. Similar bodies under the governments of provinces and autonomous regions actively cooperate with the command of military districts in matters of employment of retired people. Those military pensioners who have decided to engage in business activities, local governments provide licensing and tax benefits, issue loans and loans.


Even in the early years of this century, Chinese analysts recognized the transformation of social insurance, including pension, health and unemployment insurance, as the main focus of social security reform21. China made its first attempt to create its own system of social guarantees back in the 1950s, when the Soviet model of centralized social security was taken as a model. During the Cultural Revolution, the centralized system of state support was replaced by social security, which operated at the enterprise level. In modern China, insurance is seen as the core of the entire social security system. It provides guarantees in case of major risks possible among the active population, and applies primarily to urban residents who are most involved in the market economy.

Pension insurance is the main element of the insurance mechanism. Established during the Cultural Revolution, insurance at the enterprise level did not meet the requirements of social protection of employees and the principles of a market economy. For most businesses, pension payments have become a heavy burden. As a result, the debt owed to pensioners grew, which undermined social stability in the country. In 1986, after two years of experimentation, the Government decided to gradually move to a centralized, multi-level pension system. Enterprises, in accordance with the established standards, began to allocate funds to city and provincial pension funds.

The model of pension provision that is being formed in China is neither distributive nor funded - it is a mixed version of the pension system. In it, the first-mandatory (distributive) level is supplemented by the second, based on funded funding, and the third, operating on a voluntary basis. The distribution level is provided by deductions of enterprises from the payroll fund, and the accumulative level is provided by deductions of enterprises to personal accounts of employees and deductions of citizens themselves.

There are different pension schemes for rural and urban populations. In the city, an employee of an enterprise or a civil servant must have at least 15 years of work experience to receive a labor pension. His pension consists of two parts - insurance and funded. The first one is paid out of mutual aid funds formed with the participation of the state and the employer. It is equal to 20% of the average salary of an employee of this territory over the past year.

The funded pension is made up of contributions paid by the employer and employee to their individual account. Deductions are equal to 11% of the average monthly salary of an employee over the past year (8% - employee's contribution, 3% - employer's contribution). The total labor pension in the city, on average, is more than 60% of the average earnings.

The amount held in the employee's individual account cannot be withdrawn in advance. The interest rate on the amount held in the account cannot be lower than the bank's interest rate for temporary deposits. The interest rate is exempt from taxes. After the death of a private person, the balance on the personal account can be inherited. If the amount of the basic pension insurance fund is insufficient to make the payment, the Government provides a subsidy.

Until 2009, in China, pension payments were a privilege reserved only for urban residents. But as a result of the reform, about 55% of rural residents started receiving social pensions from the state.22 They do not pay pension contributions from their income and, accordingly, do not receive an employment pension.

Although 45% of rural residents of retirement age are not covered by pension provision in China, this does not mean that they are not covered by the state pension system.,

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that they are deprived of their livelihood. They are subject to the principle of family dependency, which is normative in the country. Its implementation is monitored by local governments.

Another source of livelihood for older people in rural areas is their right to land contracts. A person who assumes responsibility for the maintenance of an elderly person undertakes to take care of his land plot or forest land taken by the latter on a contract, as well as for his livestock, provided that the income from this economic activity remains on the alimentary account. This provision is spelled out in the Law of the People's Republic of China "On Ensuring the Rights and Interests of the elderly".

In early 2014, the Chinese government decided to launch a new phase of pension reform soon. The division of the pension system into rural and urban should be eliminated, and the level of rural residents ' pensions will be closer to the pensions of citizens. There is also additional pension insurance on a voluntary basis. It is seen as an important area of reform.

Currently, in China, men can retire at 60, women working in the administrative sphere-at 55, and women engaged in manual labor - at 50. In 2015, the average life expectancy in the country reached 75 years, which brought China closer to European countries (Poland, Hungary, etc.) 24.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Security of the People's Republic of China is considering a possible increase in the retirement age in the near future and its unification for men and women. There are proposals to gradually, over 30 years, reach the single pension threshold of 65 years 25. Back in the late 1990s, the State Council of the People's Republic of China adopted a decision according to which persons engaged in science, education, finance, literature and art were required to retire at the age of 65. In some cases, with the consent of the provincial authorities, an elderly person could hold office up to 70 years, and by the decision of the State Council of the country-up to 75 years. 26

Overall, the process of reforming the Chinese pension system is proceeding well. In recent years, the number of citizens of the country covered by the pension system has significantly increased. According to some sources, pension coverage increased from 30% to 55% of the population between 2007 and 2013 alone.27

Pension benefits for employees of state-owned enterprises and institutions are growing almost every year. From 2005 to 2012, the average pension for this category of individuals increased from 700 yuan to 1,721 yuan.28 In terms of Russian rubles, the average pension in China in many regions of the country exceeds 9 thousand rubles. rub 29

In the field of pension provision, the state manages to avoid equalization, but also to avoid socially unjustified differentiation. Lu Xuejing, an expert at Beijing University of Economics and Business, estimates that retired government employees and civil servants receive pensions about three times as much as employees of manufacturing enterprises.30


In recent decades, China has been actively developing its health insurance system. All city employers, regardless of the form of ownership, are required to transfer contributions to the mandatory (basic) health insurance of their employees. Contributions are paid not only by employers, but also by employees. Their size varies depending on the region. In 2012, in Beijing, the employer paid 10% of the salary, and the employees themselves paid 2% plus 3 yuan. In Hebei Province, employer and employee contributions were 7.5% and 2%, respectively, 31 and in many other provinces, 6% and 2%, respectively.

Along with basic health insurance, China has a rural health insurance system and a separate health insurance system for urban residents, which is largely voluntary in nature and is designed for citizens who are not covered by the basic health insurance program. Its target group is students, children, unemployed citizens, the urban informal sector, etc.

The strengthening of the insurance component in medical support allowed reducing the burden on the state budget, linking the amount of insurance payments with the level of medical care. However, new problems have emerged. After the transition from free medical care to a health insurance system, some medical services, especially those that are complex and expensive, have not become available to everyone.


The unemployment insurance system in China is aimed at ensuring a minimum subsistence level for people who are unemployed-

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and encouraging their employment. The employer is obliged to contribute 2% of the total salary fund to the Mandatory Unemployment Insurance Fund, and the employee - 1% of the salary. However, regulations adopted at the provincial level may change, supplement, or clarify this country-wide norm. For example, in Beijing, at the turn of the first and second decades of the twenty-first century, the rate of unemployment insurance contributions from the employer was 1% of the total salary fund, while the rate of such contributions from an employee was estimated at only 0.2% of his salary.32

In the field of employment in China, measures of state support for insurance mechanisms are used. For example, state subsidies and subsidies to individual and private entrepreneurs are provided for additional provision of jobs to persons whose employment remains difficult (women over 40, men over 50, disabled people, demobilized military personnel, university graduates, etc.) 33.Additional benefits are also provided to people who start their own businesses.


The next component of the Chinese social protection system is to preserve the importance of the family factor in the practice of social support for the population. In China, the family has traditionally always been the main and effective means of mutual assistance, caring for children, the crippled, and the elderly. Parents could fully count on a quiet old age, attention, and care from their children and grandchildren. The Chinese have the expression "Yang Tzu fang Lao" - " to raise your sons and provide for your old age."

The veneration of elders was not just an intra-family tradition, but also an important social norm, ideologically formed and controlled by the state at the legislative level. In modern China, older people continue to enjoy respect, but it is not an absolute requirement associated with the state ideology, remaining, first of all, a moral and ethical norm.

In recent decades, there has been a tendency in China to weaken the traditional family function of caring for elderly parents. In the context of urbanisation, many young Chinese people leave their native places to work. Parents are deprived of the opportunity to see their children often, to rely on their daily help and care.

The consequences of the "one family-one child" policy, which has been actively implemented in China since the beginning of the 80s of the XX century, are also reflected. At that time, this was the authorities ' response to the threat of overpopulation in the country in conditions of limited access to natural resources and their rising cost. For more than 30 years of implementation of the policy of birth control, the natural population growth in China has decreased from 26 to 8 people per thousand.

The policy of limiting the birth rate allowed for some easing. Spouses were allowed to have two children if they were the only ones in the family of their parents, as well as if a girl was born. In this case, 4 years after the birth of the first child, it was possible to give birth to a second child. Peasant families were also allowed to start it. Preferential conditions (2, 3 or more children) were preserved for national minorities, which are at least 10% of the population of the PRC 34.

However, the "one family, one child" policy is becoming a thing of the past. Chinese citizens were allowed to have a second child. This decision was made on October 29, 2015 by the Fifth Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. His communique calls for a corresponding easing of the birth control policy.35 The undesirable consequences of this course were gender disparity, the general aging of the population, as well as a possible shortage of labor resources in the near future.

The desire for the only child in the family to be a son who would take care of elderly parents has led to the fact that more boys are born in the Middle Kingdom than girls. The authorities have banned ultrasound examinations to determine the sex of the unborn baby. However, the couple go to private doctors and terminate the pregnancy if a daughter is to be born. In some rural areas of the country, 80% of children in the 5 - to 10-year-old age group are boys. In the first two decades of China's tough demographic policy alone, 50 million girls were not born. For every 100 girls in China, 118 boys are born. The number of men of marriageable age in 15-20 years will be 30 million more than the number of women of the same age.

A decrease in the birth rate with an increase in the average life expectancy leads to an increase in the number of elderly people. According to Chinese analysts, the number of working people should start to decline significantly from 2016. If this demographic course were maintained, then after 2025, the working-age part of the population in the PRC would decrease-

page 23

moose production would increase by almost 10 million people annually. At the current rate of aging, by 2050, one in three people in China could be over 60 years old, and the number of retirees would exceed the population of the United States. It is quite clear that the Chinese authorities do not want to allow such a sad forecast to be implemented.

This demographic trend creates challenges for the implementation of the traditional family function of caring for elderly parents. Therefore, a system of old-age bonuses applies to couples who comply with the "Planned Parenthood Regulation" and have only one child or two girls. After reaching the age of 60, each of the spouses is paid a lifetime subsidy from special funds of the central and local budgets.

The Law of the People's Republic of China "On the Protection of the Rights of the Elderly", which came into force on July 1, 2013, legislates the traditional duty of the family to take care of the financial situation of the elderly, their treatment and care. The law obliges young Chinese people to visit their elderly relatives who live separately. Moreover, employers are required to set aside 36 hours for their employees to do this.

The activation of the traditional principle of dependency is particularly relevant for rural residents of China, many of whom are not yet receiving pensions. The practice of concluding a "dependent family agreement" is initiated by grassroots structures of local self-government. Such agreements regulate the procedure and standards for the maintenance of elderly citizens. Control over their implementation is assigned to village residents ' committees and other management structures. This practice guarantees the rights of elderly people to financial assistance and support.


A supporting role in the Chinese social protection system is played by such a component as attracting public, charitable organizations, and private entrepreneurship to the social sphere. Professional associations of disabled people are actively involved in solving the problems of disabled people. They provide relevant agencies with information about the situation in the families of low-income people with disabilities; provide assistance to able-bodied people with disabilities in finding a job; assist people with disabilities in ensuring their minimum living needs; monitor how legislation on working with people with disabilities is observed, protection of their rights, etc.

Various cities in China are implementing programs to involve people of retirement age in interest groups. Public organizations such as district (city) retirement committees are also active in the country.

For the second decade, the socially oriented charity project "Hope"has been successfully implemented in China. Within its framework, voluntary donations finance the school education of children from low-income families living in rural areas. Millions of citizens, thousands of labor collectives, and hundreds of foreign firms doing business in China responded to the call of the project organizers.

The "Hope" project brought back about 2 million peasant children to their desks, allowed them to open almost 3 thousand new schools in poor counties, and provide material assistance to enthusiastic teachers who voluntarily moved to the rural hinterland.37 Many foreign firms operating in China also responded to the project. They provide funds for the construction of rural schools. The construction of one such school requires, in terms of US currency, approximately $30 thousand. 38

As China overcomes poverty and increases the size of the middle class, the need for additional, better social services increases. For this purpose, the opportunities of private entrepreneurship are used. For example, in Beijing, there are 400 nursing homes with 76,000 beds. Of these, 29 thousand places belong to state institutions, and 47 thousand - to private nursing homes.39

However, in general, the role of private social institutions and services in the country is still small. They continue to perform auxiliary functions in the social protection system of the population.

* * *

China's success is largely determined by the country's course towards industrial development based on modern technologies. The economic recovery is accompanied by the process of urbanization and the development of private entrepreneurship, which objectively leads to certain contradictions and aggravation of some social problems.

The Chinese authorities are aware of this. They believe that professional social workers should systematically deal with the regulation of social relations. If in 2012 there were 200 thousand of them, then by 2020 it is planned to increase their number

page 24

up to 1 million 450 thousand people 40. The relevant educational infrastructure has been created and is being developed in the country. More than 258 higher education institutions and 100 vocational schools provide training in the specialty "Social work" 41.

China, as a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO), adheres to the recommendations of this organization in implementing various social programs. According to reputable Chinese analysts, the system of social guarantees is similar to similar systems of developed countries of the world, in particular, Great Britain and Germany.42

During the period of economic reforms, China has made significant progress. The material wealth of the country's citizens is growing, the number of poor people is decreasing, and life expectancy is increasing. If in 1949 the average life expectancy was only 35 years, now, as indicated above, it is equal to 75 years. Today in China, the goal is to create a "middle-class society". To do this, it is planned to double the country's GDP by 2020, bringing it to $15 trillion.43

All components of the Chinese social protection system are aimed at achieving a common goal - social well-being and ensuring the highest possible level of social harmony.

1 List of countries by GDP (PPP) - <url>

Klochkovsky L. L. 2 Crisis, transformational shifts in the global economy and Latin America / / Latin America. 2010. N 2, с. 19. (Klochkovskiy L.L. 2010. Krizis, transformatsionnye sdvigi... // Latinskaya Amerika. N 2) (in Russian)

Ovchinnikov V. 3 Victory over poverty // Rossiyskaya gazeta. 14.06.2012.

4 Ibid.

5 The tax system of the People's Republic of China - http://ru.wikipedia.Org/wiki/_

6 China is improving disability care -

7 Ibid.

8. Tsitkilov P. Ya 8 Istoriya sotsial'noi raboty [History of social work]. Rostov n / A, Feniks. 2006. p. 239. (Tsitkilov P. Ya. 2006. Istoriya sotsialnoy raboty. Rostov n/D) (in Russian)

9 China is improving disability care...

10 Pochagina O. V. 10 Trade in women and children in modern China / / Problems of the Far East. 2007. N 1, с. 147. (Pochagina O.V. 2007. Torgovlya zhenshchinami i detmi v sovremennom Kitae // Problemy Dalnego Vostoka. N 1) (in Russian)

11 Ibid.

12 China has opened 130 centers to help street children -

Alexey Kushnir. 13 To retire to China / / Rossiyskaya gazeta. 11.06.2008.

Solovyov Evgeny. 14 In China, they will oblige you to treat without prepayment / / Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 28.02.2013.

Hou Wenzhou. 15 Reform of the social security system in China / / Problems of the Far East. 2001, N1, p. 120.

16 Sistema sotsial'nogo obespecheniya v Narodno-osvobozhitel'noi armii Kitai [Social security system in the People's Liberation Army of China]. 2013, N 8, с. 36 - a/2014/

17 Ibid.


19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

Hou Wenzhou. 21 Decree. Op. p. 119.

22 Pension systems: global experience

Kaukenova T. 23 Pension provision in China -

24 Where in the world most people live and work. According to the OECD / / Komsomolskaya Pravda. Weekly magazine. April 29-May 6, 2015.

Kotov Andrey. 25 The pension system will ruin China's economy -

Zitkilov P. Ya . 26 Edict. soch. P. 243.

Kotov Andrey. 27 Decree. Op.

28 Modern China -

29 Pension systems: world experience...

30 Modern China...

31 Compulsory health insurance in China-general information -

32 Unemployment insurance in China

Bazhenova E. S. 33 Will China become a locomotive? // Asia and Africa today. 2009, N 6. P. 6. (Bazhenova E. S. 2009. Stanet li Kitai lokomotivom? // Aziya i Afrika segodnya. N 6) (in Russian)

34 How do pensioners live in China -

35 Ibid.

Solov'ev E. 36 Young Chinese people were obliged to visit their grandfathers and grandmothers.Rossiyskaya Gazeta. A week. 10.01.2013.

Ovchinnikov V. 37 Decree. Op.

38 Ibid.

39 Retired. What about them? // Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 16.01.2014.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid.

Hou Wenzhou. 42 Decree. Op.

Vasiliev A.M. 43 China, where are you going? // Asia and Africa today. 2014, N 8. С. 3. (Vasiliev A.M. 2014. Kitai, kuda nesyoshsya ty? // Azia i Afrika segodnya. N 8) (in Russian)


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Wan Yong
Tianjin, China
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31.01.2024 (171 days ago)
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